Cannabidiol (CBD) is emerging as a favorite nutritional supplement. Its proponents claim that it is a safe anti-inflammatory that can enhance conditions like irritable bowel disease, schizophrenia, anxiety and allow you to get more sleep. What does the science say? Read on to find out.
What is CBD?
Cannabidiol (CBD) is just one of over 100 cannabinoids found in Cannabis sativa, the bud plant. CBD and THC are the two main active compounds found in the cannabis plant. They’re also the best-studied and -recognized.
Contrary to THC, CBD is not psychoactive. It can’t cause negative mental effects linked to THC, like paranoia, nervousness, and memory issues. Instead, some research indicates that it might naturally shield against the bud high.
In early studies, CBD has shown promising benefits for people with many different hard-to-treat ailments.
- Prevents seizures in rare forms of epilepsy
- Reduces inflammation and Might kill pain
- Possible for autoimmunity and neurological ailments
- Potential for some mental illness
- Reduces nausea and increases appetite
- Many possible benefits now under investigation
- Well-tolerated with few reported side effects
- Not enough study in people
- May Lead to drowsiness
- May be unsafe for people with compromised immune systems
- Possible drug interactions
Possible Health Benefits of CBD/Cannabidiol
Do not try to utilize CBD as an alternative to treatment by a health professional. If you would like to incorporate CBD in your health management or treatment program, speak to your doctor before doing this.
A prescription CBD oil is known as an effective anti-seizure medication. However, further research is required to determine the CBD’s other benefits and security.
Likely Effective For
Many people assert that CBD helped them with seizures even when nothing else worked. The study backs them up: CBD may help reduce seizures in people with epilepsy who don’t respond to drugs.
In reality, in 2018, the FDA accepted a CBD oral solution for the treatment of two rare kinds of severe epilepsy. This acceptance is based on a solid foundation of evidence from the past several years of CBD study, but it’s now limited only to patients with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome and Dravet syndrome.
In a 3-month analysis of 23 children and young adults (3-26 years of age) with treatment-resistant epilepsy, individuals who obtained a purified 98% oil-based CBD infusion experienced significantly fewer seizures. In 39 percent of participants, the incidence of seizures dropped by half.
In the second trial of 214 children and adults with epilepsy, CBD was likewise linked to a decrease in seizures. The authors concluded that CBD was secure even in the maximum dose, which was twice the former study.
In 1 survey, the parents of children who suffer from treatment-resistant epilepsy and utilize CBD were asked about the advantages of CBD. 19 parents were comprised, 84 percent of whom stated that CBD reduced the frequency of seizures. Two parents said that CBD completely resolved seizures. Parents also reported improved alertness, sleep, and mood in their kids. Some reported side effects were drowsiness and fatigue.
In 15 patients with epilepsy who didn’t respond to medication, those who took 200 — 300 milligrams of cannabidiol per day over 4.5 weeks experienced fewer seizures. 7 of 8 patients that took CBD improved, while only 1 patient in the placebo group did.
CBD’s capacity to assist people with epilepsy is comparatively well-established, along with the FDA approved CBD for two kinds of severe epilepsy in 2018. Its benefits for individuals with different kinds of seizures are still under analysis.
Possibly Successful For
According to a lot of promising studies, cannabinoids could potentially turn into a new class of painkillers, which some researchers think can help millions of people with chronic pain.
We’ve got receptors for cannabinoids in our whole body, however, the first form (CB1) is very dense at the pain pathways of the brain, spine, and nerves. The next type (CB2) is more significant for the immune system, but they’re also involved in inflammation. According to some researchers, CBD can reduce both pain and inflammation through their actions on such receptors.
In a large analysis of 18 clinical trials, the authors reasoned that cannabinoids strongly and safely reduced various types of chronic pain: neuropathic, arthritis, fibromyalgia, HIV, and multiple sclerosis pain. The second review of 16 studies found significant evidence of CBD’s benefits for people with chronic pain. The authors of the second review noted very little difference in tolerability between CBD and a placebo, meaning that CBD was not associated with unwanted side effects in a vast majority of studies; however, they notice that the research analyzing tolerability were of low quality.
In a number of studies of people with multiple sclerosis and chronic pain, those taking a CBD/THC mixture reported decreased pain. The combination was tolerated well and utilized regularly for as many as 2 years.
Cannabidiol/THC mixtures have produced limited, but promising results in research on postoperative pain, chronic pain, cancer pain, rheumatoid arthritis, and neuropathic pain.
And importantly, according to an open-label study, CBD appears to be much less likely to trigger tolerance long-term (after two years), including opioids and most other painkillers.
CBD is now under investigation as a potential non-addictive painkiller, acting on the cannabinoid receptors in the nervous and immune systems. The evidence is promising, but more research is necessary.
Though marijuana use might increase appetite and caloric intake, it’s been linked to lower BMI, less obesity, and decreased likelihood of developing diabetes.
In one study of almost 5000 people, past and present marijuana users had lower fasting glucose and insulin levels (by 16%), lower waist circumference and BMI, lower insulin resistance (by 18%), and higher HDL. These factors are connected to the beginning of diabetes.
In a study of diabetes-prone young mice, those given CBD were not as likely to develop diabetes. Just 30% of the CBD-treated mice obtained diabetes, compared to 86 percent in non-treated mice.
In a mouse study, CBD was correlated with reduced levels of destruction of insulin-producing cells in the pancreas. It was also linked to reduced inflammatory cytokines in these diabetic mice along with a change in the immune reaction from Th1 (autoimmune) into Th2. This result suggests a possible benefit for people with type I diabetes, in which autoimmunity is a significant factor, but human studies haven’t yet been conducted.
According to some researchers, CBD may have a part in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes, particularly in the early disease stages. More clinical studies will be required to confirm these findings.
Insufficient Evidence For
The subsequent purported benefits are just supported by restricted, low-quality clinical studies. There is inadequate evidence to support the use of CBD for any of the below-listed uses. Remember to talk with a doctor before taking CBD, and never use it instead of something your doctor recommends or prescribes.
4) Neurodegenerative Diseases
In a small study of 5 patients with movement disorders, individuals who shot CBD had less uncontrollable muscle twitching, and higher doses had a stronger association. The patients received 100 to 600 milligrams of CBD per day on a 6-week period. 2 of the included patients with Parkinson’s disease experienced side effects (such as a worsening of tremor) with doses over 300 mg per day, however.
In a study of 219 individuals with multiple sclerosis, those who took a mixture of CBD and THC consistently reported fewer muscle spasms.
However, CBD together with THC did not have any apparent effect on symptoms in a study of 17 patients with Parkinson’s disease.
Another research suggests that CBD could protect brain cells from damage. At a cell study, neurons vulnerable to CBD suffered significantly less damage from toxic substances and oxidative stress, which are responsible for many of this destruction caused by stroke and other forms of brain damage. This ancient study must soon be followed by the creature and, finally, human studies to further research this benefit.
Animal studies have produced largely encouraging results. In rodent models, CBD ingestion is associated with reduced brain damage, decreased beta-amyloid toxicity, and improved cognitive function, suggesting a potential future role in Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s disease.
Animal research also indicates that CBD can shield the brain from the effects of stroke and decreased blood circulation in the event the results can be replicated in humans. In cell studies, it had been a more powerful antioxidant than vitamin C (ascorbic acid) or vitamin E (α-tocopherol).
CBD is also currently under investigation for its potential to help people with other climatic conditions such as Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS).
Many researchers are currently investigating whether CBD could help people with climatic conditions such as Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s, multiple sclerosis, and ALS. Early results are broadly positive, but more studies are necessary.
5) Multiple Sclerosis Symptoms
According to some researchers, cannabinoids may relieve symptoms of multiple sclerosis (MS). In a study of 66 patients with MS and chronic pain, those who received a mixture of CBD and THC reported less pain over 2 years. The patients determined the dosage by themselves, taking up to they believed was required to relieve the pain.
In a study of 189 individuals with multiple sclerosis, those who had used a combination of CBD and THC also reported reduced muscle stiffness, pain, and sleep disturbances and improved bladder control.
In another study of 50 MS patients, individuals who obtained a CBD/THC combination reported marginally reduced muscle stiffness and improved sleep. Lower doses needed a weaker association; the writers suggested that some MS patients in the study needed higher doses to get relief.
Unlike its cousin THC, CBD is thought to be a potential instrument for preventing psychosis and reducing symptoms in schizophrenia, though the evidence is still considered lacking.
In 42 patients with acute schizophrenia, individuals who obtained CBD per day reported developments of all symptoms after 4 weeks. The outcomes were as powerful for CBD as for a famous antipsychotic medication, however, CBD was tolerated better. Lately, CBD was also associated with the reduced breakdown of anandamide (blocked FAAH), which researchers suggest might explain the beneficial consequences.
Though the psychoactive THC in cannabis seems to trigger psychotic episodes, particularly in those with schizophrenia, CBD has opposite, antipsychotic results. An increasing number of studies indicate that CBD might be an effective natural alternative to antipsychotic drugs, but with fewer side effects.
According to some research, individuals who experience psychosis may create too much or not enough of their cannabinoid signals. CBD binds to cannabinoid receptors strongly than our inner cannabinoids; some researchers suggest that it might thus help re-establish a balance of cannabinoids in the brain. THC, on the other hand, is more potent than our internal cannabinoids (anandamide and 2-AG), which might explain how it activates psychosis.
Many animal studies have also affirmed an antipsychotic effect of CBD.
Recent research suggests that CBD has the capability to improve some hard-to-treat schizophrenia symptoms. The evidence is promising but nevertheless considered inadequate to warrant prescribing CBD to individuals with schizophrenia.
One CBD dose of 400 mg has been linked to reduced anxiety in a brain imaging study of 10 individuals with seasonal affective disorder. After swallowing CBD, participants underwent decreased blood flow to parts of the limbic system which are often overactive in anxiety. At precisely the same time, blood circulation to another region important for cognition and motivation (the posterior cingulate cortex) increased.
In a study of 10 healthy volunteers, people who shot CBD felt less anxiety after the stressful task of public talking. In 24 patients with social anxiety, taking CBD prior to public speaking was linked to reduced anxiety and discomfort and enhanced cognition.
In another study, 8 volunteers experienced less stress when they took CBD with THC than when they took THC independently.
Future research will explore the potential advantages of CBD for people with various types of anxiety, such as anxiety disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and post-traumatic anxiety disorder (PTSD).
CBD is a promising anti-anxiety compound with positive results from several small, early studies. Future research will explain if CBD is an effective remedy for different kinds of anxiety.
8) Rheumatoid Arthritis
As a natural anti-inflammatory and antioxidant compounds, cannabinoids possess the potential to provide relief of joint pain and swelling. In studies of arthritic animals, those given CBD suffered significantly less joint destruction and slower development of the inflammatory disease.
In a trial of 58 people, people taking a CBD/THC mix (Sativex) reported decreased symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis. Within 5 months, this blend was associated with decreased pain during movement and at rest, improved sleep quality, and reduced inflammation. The study furthermore reported no serious adverse effects.
9) Nausea and Appetite
THC is a licensed medication used as a treatment for nausea and vomiting (dronabinol) in people, however, the clinical signs for CBD in this function are restricted.
One older study suggests that CBD and THC in combination are better than either alone for increasing appetite and reducing nausea. THC increases appetite, but its side effects are unpleasant to the patient. The writers suggest that CBD can reduce the psychoactivity of THC, without reducing appetite stimulation.
In animal research, those given average CBD doses vomited less and displayed fewer indications of nausea from poisonous drugs. But contributing to the animals in quite high doses, CBD appeared to raise nausea or become ineffective.
Cannabis users with insomnia prefer strains much higher in CBD as a sleep aid. They are also less likely to become reliant on these high-CBD, low-THC breeds, according to a poll of 163 adults purchasing medical cannabis. Additional THC has been associated with worse sleep quality in the longer-term.
CBD’s potential as a sleeping aid could simply be caused by its calming, anxiety-reducing effects.
11) Substance Use Disorders
Across the USA and around the world, a rising number of individuals suffer from opioid use disorder. In accordance with promising early research, CBD can assist these people to violate their dependence on opioid painkillers: individuals with chronic pain who use cannabis have a tendency to take fewer opioid painkillers than people who don’t use cannabis.
In a rat study, animals given CBD exhibited less addictive behavior and were less inclined to actively find morphine and heroin. The authors imply that CBD could interfere with the brain’s reward system.
12) Quitting Smoking
In a pilot study of 24 smokers, those who obtained cannabidiol smoked about 40% fewer cigarettes and didn’t record increased cravings for smoking. Larger studies will be required to confirm whether CBD will help individuals stop smoking.
Animal & Cell Research (Lacking Evidence)
No clinical evidence supports the use of CBD for some of the states listed in this part. Below is a summary of the present animal and cell-based research, which should guide further investigational efforts. On the other hand, the research listed below should not be interpreted as supportive of any health benefit.
13) Inflammation and Autoimmunity
According to some investigators, CBD may be helpful in a number of inflammatory and pain-associated ailments. It functions on the human body’s cannabinoid receptors, which then regulate inflammation, balance the immune system, and protect from oxidative stress.
Our immune system has sensors to your cannabinoids our own body generates, as well as for those we choose in. Some researchers believe that this internal cannabinoid system can become unbalanced in autoimmune inflammation and disease.
CBD can act directly on immune cells to trigger a host of anti-inflammatory and antioxidant responses:
Th1 and Th2 Dominance
In one study, asthmatic rats that received CBD had reduced Th1 (IL-6 and TNF-alpha) and Th2 (IL-4, IL-5, IL-13) answers. CBD has not been examined in humans with allergies, so talk to your doctor before using it for this purpose.
A mouse study found an association between CBD and reduced markers of pain and inflammation. In resistant cells, meanwhile, direct exposure to CBD resulted in diminished production of inflammatory signals (Th1: TNF-alpha, IFN-gamma, and IL-6; Th2: IL-4 and IL-8).
In 1 study, immune cells subjected to CBD expressed less IL-17 and had overall reduced Th17 activation. This result suggests a potential future role in suppressing Th17-dominant autoimmunity, but human studies have not yet been conducted, and much more research is required.
Neutrophils subjected to CBD also often switch to their anti-inflammatory state.
CBD is emerging as a possible solution for autoimmune and inflammatory conditions. Some researchers feel that, through its activity on cannabinoid receptors, CBD could suppress an overactive immune system, but this effect has yet to be examined in people.
14) Heart Health
Some cell and animal studies have indicated a role for CBD in protecting your heart by relaxing blood vessels, reducing inflammation, and combating oxidative stress.
CBD was correlated with more relaxed arteries and less damage to blood vessels in animal models of cardiovascular disease. In many studies of these animals, it was connected to more frequent heart rhythms, decreased heart rate and blood pressure in reaction to pressure, and reduced damage to the heart and brain from obstructed blood vessels. Thus, some researchers believe that it might protect from heart attacks and stroke, but human trials haven’t yet been conducted.
In a cell study, platelets subjected to CBD clumped together significantly less, reducing their potential to clog blood vessels. In white blood cells, CBD is connected to reduced inflammatory processes. Both of these effects could help clarify its potential to increase heart health.
Animal and cell studies have shown a connection between CBD and enhanced markers of coronary health. But more research will be asked to explore whether CBD can prevent heart disease in humans.
Depressed mice given CBD immediately recovered into a non-depressed emotional state. The result has been maintained over the years and proved to be as powerful as standard antidepressants.
In people, CBD is a lot better studied for stress than for depression. Future studies will determine whether it has a role to play.
16) Inflammatory Bowel Disease
In animals with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), people provided CBD had lower gut inflammation.
In a different study, mice with IBD which were awarded CBD had reduced inflammation and normal gut motion. Tissues and cells vulnerable to CBD were less inflamed and displayed fewer signs of IBD-associated symptoms.
In cells, CBD exposure was associated with increased activation of PPAR-gamma, an important inflammation-reducing and metabolic pathway.
So far, several animal and cellular studies imply that CBD could be good for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). This is not surprising, given its anti-inflammatory reputation. Human studies have yet to confirm these advantages, however.
17) Antibacterial Activity
CBD revealed some antimicrobial action against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus Aureus (MRSA), which often causes tricky, difficult-to-treat, hospital infections. This is just one limited cell culture study, therefore it’s currently unclear how useful CBD can be against bacteria and other germs, but research is continuing .
18) Mad Cow Disease
In one intriguing study, mice were infected with a prion disease, a kind of infectious protein that causes degeneration of the nervous system, and half were awarded CBD. Those from the CBD group dwelt almost a week more than those from the control group.
Mad Cow and other prion disorders are notoriously difficult to treat, and they don’t have any known cure. Future research will clarify if CBD has a part to play in the emerging science of prions.
19) Bone Health
Although not as understood, our bones also have little-researched receptors for cannabinoids.
In mice, CBD was connected to enhanced recovery of broken limbs. Both the CBD and THC were tested, but just CBD revealed the potential to activate genetic pathways that increase collagen structure.
In a study on human skin tissue, vulnerability to CBD was linked to the diminished production of oils (sebum) and a reduced number of oil-producing glands. The skin tissue subjected to CBD had fewer markers of inflammation. Each of these effects would be very useful for people with acne. Hopefully, future human research will determine whether CBD skin creams are effective against acne.
In 1 study, exposure to CBD was associated with a reduced branch of skin cells. Excessive division results in the development and symptoms of psoriasis; the authors of this study concluded that CBD has a possible role in future psoriasis treatments.
According to early study, CBD and other chemicals from cannabis show promising cancer-fighting properties. Interestingly, THC has also been studied for its possible against cancer, but its psychoactive effects in large doses are considered overly severe.
In fact, cannabinoids similar to THC were used to reduce nausea, nausea, and improve appetite in cancer patients. Some synthetic cannabinoids are still used for this indication. More recently, researchers have discovered the potential of pure cannabinoids like CBD and their possible role in combating the signs of cancer.
Overall, CBD is a non-psychoactive chemical that’s presently being investigated for cancer therapy. It may one day be used to improve the effectiveness of standard treatments or as an anti-cancer substance on its own, though much more research will be required before that day comes. For now, ask your doctor about CBD as a complementary substance to ascertain whether it fits within your current treatment plan.
Cervical, thyroid, colon, and blood cancer cells died or were unable to increase when exposed directly to CBD.
Human brain cancer (glioma) cell growth and invasion also decreased in the presence of CBD. This outcome could provide hope for combating this hard-to-treat and fatal type of cancer.
Other mobile studies suggest that CBD holds promise for fighting prostate and breast cancer. Some experts believe it directly reduces tumor size, relieves pain, and can enhance the effectiveness of traditional drugs.
Researchers have conducted many studies on the potential mechanisms of CBD against cancer. They believe that CBD probably works by starving cancer cells of vitality, making them more sensitive to the human body’s immune reaction, also by blocking a recently discovered cannabinoid-related cancer pathway (GPR55).
Though these studies are exciting, most of the study so far is limited to cells. It’s unknown if carrying CBD can help fight cancer in humans.
Many researchers think that CBD has a function in the treatment of several cancers. Studies have been limited to cell cultures, and human trials provide a great deal more detail.
CBD Side Effects & Safety
CBD is usually well-tolerated and rarely produces side effects, even at high doses and if folks use it for a long time.
Some people should take additional precautions, such as:
- People with weakened immune systems, that should avoid or use it sparingly. In a cell-based study, CBD was associated with the diminished activity of T and B immune cells. This implies that CBD can increase the probability of infections and worsen HIV, tumor growth, metastases, and asthma.
- People taking medication. CBD may decrease the activity of liver enzymes called cytochrome P450, responsible for metabolizing more than 60 percent of prescribed drugs. If you take prescription drugs, ask your physician to rule out some other interactions.
Individuals taking CBD have reported uncommon side effects, such as a small decline in blood pressure, dry mouth, lightheadedness, and drowsiness. Combined with THC, it might interfere with motivation and learning.
Megadoses of CBD can trigger or worsen anxiety (through activation of TRPV1 receptors).
Although CBD counters the THC saturated in normal doses, a monkey study suggests that large amounts of CBD could enhance the effects of THC. According to some researchers, higher CBD doses ellagic acid, which may raise THC’s psychoactive effects.
Since cannabinoids like CBD do not blend well with water, they need to be invented as oils. Furthermore, the amount of CBD that’s absorbed from the intestine may fluctuate, and large amounts may remain unabsorbed. New products such as CBD/cannabinoid patches, nose sprays, and lozenges have been developed for greater absorption.
CBD might be appealing to patients in contrast to synthetic cannabinoids and THC since it’s not psychoactive. Many people say that they want to avoid the “large,” paranoia, and nausea that THC can cause.
Cannabidiol (CBD) is a non-psychoactive cannabinoid extracted in the cannabis plant. It has been accepted by the FDA to treat two rare types of epilepsy; according to a lot of early studies, it also has possible against autoimmunity, inflammatory conditions, stress, neurological disorders, substance use disorders, and much more — though additional research is required to confirm these benefits.
CBD is usually well-tolerated, but individuals with compromised immune systems or those taking prescription medications could be in danger of side effects. Always speak with your doctor before adding a new supplement to your daily health routine.